Purchase Situation

A component of the external influences on consumer buying behavior that represents the circumstances, such as environment, emotional state or time pressure, a person is experiencing when faced with a purchase decision.

Parity Pricing

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A competitive pricing method in which initial price is set at levels that are the same as competitors' prices.

Marketing Concept

Suggests marketing decisions should flow from first making efforts to know what customers want and only after this should an organization initiate the process of developing and marketing products and services.

Group Membership

A component of the external influences on consumer buying behavior that represents people and organizations with which a person shares certain characteristics and which may influence a persons purchase decisions.

Direct Distribution System

A distribution design where a marketer reaches the intended final customer by distributing the product directly to the customer and includes Direct Marketing Systems, Direct Retail Systems, Personal Selling Systems and Assisted Marketing Systems.

Competitive Pricing

A process for setting the initial price for a product that bases price largely competitor pricing and includes such methods as Below Competition Pricing, Above Competition Pricing and Parity Pricing.

Actual Product

A component of the Total Product offered by the marketer, this represents part of the product that is used (i.e., product features) as well as other elements that are included such as branding, packaging and labeling.

Total Product

Represents the sum of all tangible and intangible offerings and benefits a customer obtains from a product and includes three key elements: core benefits, actual product and augmented product.

Push Money (also Sales Incentives)

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A form of trade sales promotion offering incentives to a channel member's sales force and customer service staff to help sell more of the marketer's product.

Partial-Service Research Firm

Research companies that offer expertise addressing a specific part of the research plan, such as developing methods to collect data (e.g., design surveys) locating research participants or undertaking data analysis.

Marketing Mix

Describes the decisions made by marketers to appeal to their target markets and includes product, distribution, promotion, pricing and services.

Growth Stage of PLC

Stage within the Product Life Cycle which occurs when a product is widely accepted and often reaches rapid growth characterized by a large percentage sales increase over previous periods.

Direct Marketing Systems

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A direct distribution system where customers place orders either through information gained from non-personal contact with the marketer (e.g., marketer's website or print catalog) or through personal communication with a company representative who is not a salesperson (e.g., placing order by telephone).

Complementary Products

Products viewed as add-ons to a main product which are designed to enhance the main product by making it easier to use, improving overall styling or extend functionality.

Administrative Channel Arrangement

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A type of dependent channel arrangement where a single channel member, such as a leading brand manufacturer or large retailer, has achieved a significant power position and dominates the decisions that occur within the channel.

Tracking Research

Method of data collection often associated with Quantitative Research, where the behavior of customers is monitored as they engage in regular purchase or information gathering activities in either an online or offline setting.