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A form of sales promotion, mainly used in the consumer market, that awards something of value to winners not based on skill but rather based on luck and, in general, through random selection.

Public Relations (also Publicity, PR)

A method of promotion that involves the use of a variety of communications channels and tools in an effort to cultivate favorable relations with key publics, particularly the news media, with the objective of gaining favorable mentions of the marketer's company or product without direct payment to the publisher of the information.

Order Taker

A category within personal selling that includes salespeople who primarily assist customers with a purchase in ways that are much less assertive than salespeople who serve as Order Getters and includes sub-categories Clerks (retail and industrial) and Customer Service Personnel.

Market Segment

A smaller part of a larger market consisting of customers grouped (i.e., segmented) by characteristic shared by others in their group.

Generic Branding (also No-Name Branding)

A branding strategy, common to commodity products, that essentially creates a brandless product offering basic product features and low price.

Descriptive Market Research

Generally considered the most popular form of market research, this research method has the objective of providing an accurate description for something that is occurring (e.g., monthly sales volume, customer preference).


A branding strategy where a marketer with its own brand seeks to partner with an established brand owned by another organization in hopes the synergy of the two brands is even more powerful than a single brand alone.


Actionable steps or decisions made in order to follow the strategies established.

Public Service Advertising

A type of advertising run by not-for-profit organizations that concern issues viewed as for the "greater good" of society and, in many cases, delivered free-of-charge through media outlets.

Organizational Stakeholders

Groups outside an organization that provide services, support or, in other ways, impact the company.

Market Segmentation

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A key element of a target marketing strategy in which large markets, where customers possess different characteristics, is divided into smaller market segments in which customers are grouped by characteristic shared by others in the segment.


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Consists of the strategies and tactics used to identify, create and maintain satisfying relationships with customers that result in value for both the customer and the marketer.

Development Stage of PLC

Stage within the Product Life Cycle which occurs before a product is introduced to the market and is principally a time for honing the product offering and preparing the market for the product.