Packaging generally offering a higher level of damage protection than the final customer package and used to transport the final customer package through the supply chain often within a multiple unit container.
Consumer Purchase Decisions
General term referring to types of decisions facing consumers when they make purchases which include: Minor New Purchases, Minor Re-Purchases, Major New Purchases and Major Re-Purchase.
Assisted Marketing Systems
A direct distribution system where the marketer relies on others (e.g., agents and brokers) to communicate the marketer's products but the marketer handles distribution directly to the customer.
A form of sales promotion, mainly used in the consumer market, which typically lowers a customer's final acquisition cost for a product purchase but generally does so by: 1) requiring customers provide information and/or undertake activity after the purchase, and 2) only offering the incentive after the information is received.
Personal Selling Systems
A direct distribution system involving a person whose main responsibility is to create and manage sales (e.g., salesperson) generally by persuading the buyer to place an order.
Mass Coverage Distribution (also Intensive Distribution)
Distribution strategy that attempts to have products made available in nearly all locations in which that type of product is sold though this strategy is generally only feasible for low priced products that appeal to very large target markets (e.g., consumer convenience products).
Independent Channel Arrangement (also Conventional Distribution)
A non-binding arrangement between channel members to engage in a business relationship that allows channel members to move away from the relationship if they feel it is not in their best interest.
Wholesale format represented by distributors that never take physical possession of products but instead act as shipping coordinators who receive product orders and arrange to have products shipped directly to their customers from product suppliers.
Consumer Sales Promotions
Sales promotions that are primarily directed at the final consumer normally in the form of an incentive to make a purchase or undertake some other activity.
A component of the internal influences on consumer buying behavior that represents what a person feels or believes and which may be reflected in how a person acts (e.g., what they buy).
Found within the Group Membership component of the external influences on consumer buying behavior, this concept represents people and organizations which a person simultaneously associates or, in some cases, feels the need to disassociate.
A component of the internal influences on consumer buying behavior that represents the perceived personal characteristics that a person consistently exhibits, especially when that person acts in the presence of others.
Retail format represented by general or specialty merchandisers whose main strategy is to offer discount pricing and whose outlets offer few services and generally lower quality product than is available at higher-end retailers.
Indirect Distribution System
A distribution design where a marketer reaches the intended final customer by distributing a product indirectly through resellers who generally take ownership of the product and in doing so the resellers assume many responsibilities to help sell the product.
A form of promotional price adjustment where adjustments take place at the point-of-sale (i.e., at the time and place of purchase) for customers meeting certain criteria established by the seller (e.g., first time visitor to website).
Media market research technique to monitor and learn how customers access and use media (e.g., television viewing, website activity).