Represent groups that are part of a marketing organization's external forces and who regularly interact with the marketing organization such as supply and distribution partners, industry standards groups and support companies (e.g., advertising agencies).
A distribution channel concept which suggests that the growth of the Internet as a communication and distribution channel will lead to a flattening of the layers of distribution resulting in fewer resellers (e.g., wholesalers) as manufacturers and final buyers learn to transact directly.
A key concept in scientific research, including marketing research, that is designed to test theory or "gut feelings" about some issues usually with the use of statistical analysis.
A formal plan presented by researchers to clients that offers critical information outlining how research objectives and how research will be conducted.
A component of the internal influences on consumer buying behavior that affects, through both conscious and subconscious processes, how a consumer perceives the world.
Research approach, often dubbed touchy-feely research, that requires researchers to interpret the information gathered, most often without the benefit of statistical support.
A form of trade sales promotion offering channel partners short-term price breaks or other guarantees (e.g., buy back unsold product) for stocking product and, in many cases, for agreeing to promote the product such as placing product in a specific store location (i.e., display allowance) or highlighting the product in company-produced promotions (i.e., advertising allowance).

A non-personal form of promotion delivered through media outlets that generally require the marketer pay for message placement.

A direct distribution system where a product marketer also operates their own retail outlets.
Assurance offered by a marketer that the product will perform up to expectations or the marketer will support the customer's decision to replace, have the product repaired or accept a return for a refund.
A critical component needed to make good marketing decisions by presenting a picture of what is occurring (or likely to occur) in a market and then offering alternative courses of action that may be followed by the marketer in order to reach their objectives.
The internal processing of stimuli (e.g., advertisements) that shapes how a person sees themselves and the world they live in.
Sales leads that have been evaluated and are determined to meet the requirements to be a sales prospect.
Method of data collection often associated with Quantitative Research, where the behavior of customers is monitored as they engage in regular purchase or information gathering activities in either an online or offline setting.
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A type of dependent channel arrangement where a single channel member, such as a leading brand manufacturer or large retailer, has achieved a significant power position and dominates the decisions that occur within the channel.
Products viewed as add-ons to a main product which are designed to enhance the main product by making it easier to use, improving overall styling or extend functionality.